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再審「南京大虐殺」
世界に訴える日本の冤罪

The Alleged 'Nanking Massacre'
Japan's rebuttal to China's forged claims

竹本忠雄 大原康男
Takemoto Tadao & Ohara Yasuo

結語

Conclusion

中国政府は、日本人には戦争に対する罪悪感を、諸外国には日本の再武装への反対を強調し、これをもって政策手段たらしめてきた。しかも、その一方で中国共産党は、自国の犯した残虐行為の数々については、これを道徳的に弁明しようなどと、これぽっちも思ってはいないのである。
― リチャード・バーンスタイン、ロス・マンロー
『やがて中国との闘いが始まる』
The beijing authorities view anti-Japanese sentiment as something to orchestrate primarily for its own international purposes to strengthen war guilt among Japanese and opposition to Japanese rearmament among the nations of the world. Meanwhile, China's Communist Party shows no concern with any moral accounting for the atrocities that it perpetrated against its own people during the long years of mass imprisonment, labor camp, the politically induced famine of the early 1960's, or, for that matter, the massacre of pro-democracy protesters at Tiananmen.
-- Richard Bernstein and Ross H. Munro,
The coming conflict with China
時が激昂と偏見を和らげ、《理性》が欺瞞の仮面を剥いだあかつきには、正義の女神は秤を公平に持ち上げ、過去の毀誉褒貶の多くを逆転せよと要請するであろう。
― ラダビノット・パル
『パル判決書』
When time shall have softened passion and prejudice, when Reason shall have stripped the mask from misrepresentation, then justice, holding evenly her scales, will require much of past censure and praise to change places.
-- Radhabinod Pal,
Dissentient Judgement of Justice Pal
今日、いわゆる【南京大虐殺】は、ナチス・ドイツによるユダヤ人を対象とした大量殺戮に匹敵するもう一つのホロコーストであるとさえ言われている。確かに、日本はドイツと軍事同盟を結んでいたために、両国はその政治体制から国家政策の遂行まですべて共通していたかのように誤解されることが多いが、決してそんな単純なものではない。それは、ドイツと戦っていたソ連を、そうであるが故にアメリカ・イギリスと同じ民主主義国であると看做すことと同じぐらい誤っている。
Today, the so-called 'Nanking Massacre' is said to be another holocaust, which can be comparable to the slaughters committed by the Nazi Germany against the Jewish People. Sue to the fact that Japan made a military alliance with Germany, Japan is often misunderstood as if Japan had pursued similar national policy. However, it was not that simple. This is the same mistake as regarding the Soviet Union as the same democratic nation as the U.S. or the U.K. only because she was in the same military alliance, which had gone to war against Germany.
先述したように、「三十万人殺害説」を中心にすえた〈南京大虐殺〉は立証されていないが、仮に日本軍による何らかの不法殺害が存在したとしても、それは中国軍との戦闘に伴うもの、すなわち、戦時国際法に違反する通例の戦争犯罪にとどまる。しかし、ドイツはユダヤ人と戦争していたわけではない。ドイツが行ったドイツ国籍を有する者をも含むすべてのユダヤ人を対象とした大量殺戮は、戦争とは直接関係のない特定の人種イデオロギーに基づいて組織的・計画的に実行された殺人であって、日本軍が犯したとされる「戦争犯罪」とは根底から異なる。これこそがまさに「人道に対する罪」なのである。
As we have stated earlier, the 'Nanking Massacre' in which the Prosecution claims the 'massacre of 300,000', has never been so proved. However, any other unjustifiable killings by Japanese troops are regarded as punishable war crimes during the combats against the Chinese Army, and these should be processed under the international humanitarian law. On the other hand, in case of Germany, they were not fighting the war against the Jewish people. The large-scale slaughters targeting all the Jewish people, including the killings of Jewish people who had German citizenship, committed by the Nazi Germany were systematically planned killings based on the specific ethnic ideology which had no direct connection with the war. Those killings were, indeed, the 'crimes against humanity', and those crimes are fundamentally different from the 'war crimes' which the Japanese troops were said to have committed.
「国際軍事裁判」(ニュールンベルグ裁判) で裁かれたナチス・ドイツ戦犯の多くは「人道に対する罪」によっても有罪とされたが、「東京裁判」において〈南京大虐殺〉の責任を追及された広田弘毅元外相、松井石根元南京攻略軍司令官といえども「通例の戦争犯罪」で有罪とされたのであって、決して「人道に対する罪」で重刑に処せられたのではない。【南京大虐殺】がユダヤ人大量虐殺と同列視されるホロコーストではないことは、この二つの裁判の判決の相違からでも明白である。
Many of the war criminals of the Nazi Germany processed at 'the International War Criminal Court (the Nuremberg Trial) were found guilty of the 'crime against humanity'. However, in the IMTFE even both HIROTA Koki, the former Foreign Minister and MATSUI who were prosecuted for their responsibility for the 'Nanking Massacre', were found guilty under the 'conventional war crimes'. They were not sentenced the severe punishment due to the 'crimes against humanity'. This clearly proves that the 'Nanking Massacre' could not be put in the same category with the holocaust committed against the Jewish people by the Nazi Germany as we see these different court processes.
そればかりではない。南京戦当時の日本はドイツと防共協定を結んで友好関係にあったが、ドイツのユダヤ人迫害政策については、断固として拒否していたという重大な事実があることを知らねばならない。南京戦からほぼ一年たった昭和十三年 (一九三八年) 十二月、日本政府は「多年主張シ来レル人種平等ノ精神」に基づいて「猶太人ニ対シテハ他国人ト同様公正ニ取扱ヒ之ヲ特別二排斥スルカ如キ処置二出ツルコトナシ」との方針を決定した。
Not only so, we must say that there existed the crucial fact that the then Japanese government sternly refused the persecution policy against the Jewish people which the Nazi Germany was implementing, even though Japan had amicable relations with Germany by means of concluding the Anti-Comintern Pact during that time when the battle of Nanking occurred. In December 1938, almost one year after the battle of Nanking, the Japanese Government decided the policy that 'based on the spirit of racial equality which we have insisted on for many years, we will treat the Jewish people with fairness, in the same manner as we treat other foreigners and we will not take special measures to reject them'.85)
この決定があったからこそ、あの "和製シンドラー" 杉原千畝の精力的な活動も可能になり、多くのユダヤ人が救われたのである。日本人が極端な人種差別から生み出されたナチス・ドイツのホロコーストとは縁遠い存在であることはこの史実からも窺われよう。
For that very reason, the 'Japanese Oskar Schindler' SUGIHARA Chiune(Sempo)'s energetic activity was possible, and many Jewish people were rescued. This historical fact proves that the Japanese people were far away from such racism as seen in the holocaust produced by the racial extremist Nazi Germany.
そもそも日本人がそのような、「ホロコースト」などと呼ばれる体系的残虐をやる民族かどうか、日本文化の片鱗を知る西欧人なら、夙に周知のはずであろうに。ナチス・ドイツと戦ったレジスタンス戦士としてフランスのド・ゴール大統領からあらゆる顕彰を受けたアルフレッド・スムラーは、その一人だった。アウシュビッツからブッヘンヴァルトに至る強制収容所に送られ、拷問に耐えて生還した、この偉大なるフランスのヒーローは、その回想録『アウシュビッツ186416号日本に死す』においてこう書いたのである。
Who can imagine that the Japanese people is a nation who will do anything like systematically planned atrocities called 'holocaust'? Any westerners who know even a little bit about the Japanese culture may testify. Alfred Smoular, who received many awards from the French President De Gaulle, as a resistance fighter, was one of them. He survived tortures at the concentration camps in Auschwitz and Bofenvalt. This great French hero states the followings in his memoir Auschwitz 186416 dies in Japan (Tokyo:Fuso-sha, 1995):
「第二次世界大戦とレジスタンスは何よりも反ファシズム闘争であり、従って日本とヒットラー・ドイツは同日に見るべしとの妄論がますます幅をきかせているのには、とうてい我慢ならない。これは、為にするイデオロギー的プロパガンダ以外の何者でもない・・・・・・」
World War II including the movement of resistance was the fight against Fascism. I can not keep myself silent for such absurd statements which to say we should regard Japan as same as Hitler's Germany. Those absurd statements are nothing but someone's ideological propaganda.
二千年余の文化的伝統に誇りを持つ我々日本人が、謂われなきこれほどの国辱に到底よく耐え得ざることは、同じく星条旗の歴史に誇りを持つ米国国民なら十分に理解するところであろう。
We are sure the American people understand our humane heritage over 2,000 years. We, as Japanese, take pride in the same humane history. We can no longer suffer from such an unreasonable disgrace to our nation brought about by unfounded absurd accusations.
翻って、ナチス・ドイツの犯したこの非人道的犯罪に類するものと言えば、ロシア革命以来、共産主義が世界各地で惹き起こしてきた数々の民族虐待・大量殺戮ではないか。冷戦の終焉を契機として、二十世紀の人類社会に大きな災厄と惨害をもたらした共産主義に対する総括が本格的になされつつあるが、その一つ、S・クルトワの『共産主義黒書』によれば、共産主義の「犯罪」による犠牲者は少なく見積もっても一億人に達するという。死者二〇〇〇万人を出したとされる本家のソ連では一九九一年に共産主義政権が崩壊したが、六五〇〇万人という飛び抜けた数の人々が犠牲となったと推定される中国では、なお、共産党の一党独裁政権が存続しており、さまざまな人種弾圧や少数民族の迫害が後を絶たない。
On the other hand, any other inhumane criminal acts comparable to the crimes committed by Nazi Germany might be a lot of racially oriented abuses and large-scale slaughters committed in the name of Communism since the Russian Revolution, elsewhere in the world. With the end of Cold War as a trigger, re-examination of Communism, which brought about curse and disaster to mankind and society in large in the 20th century, is now being made. According to Karel Bartosek's The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (Harvard University Press, 1999), the victims of the crimes committed by the Communism can be estimated no less than 100,000,000. As for the Soviet Union, which was the mainstream of worldwide Communism, it is said that 20,000,000 people had been killed, and after all, its Communistic regime collapsed in 1991. However, Communism in China, where it is estimated that a far larger number of 65,000,000 people had been victimized, is still existing under the dictatorial political system, and still persecuting minorities and committing human right violations ceaselessly.
とりわけ、一九五五年の不当な併合以来、人口のほぼ二割に相当する一二〇万人以上の人民が虐殺され、現在も民族虐待や文化破壊が続けられているチベットの悲惨な状況は、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴヴィナやコソボ以上に残酷な "民族浄化" として知られ、米国人の間でも強い関心を持たれていることは、「セブン・イヤーズ・イン・チベット」や「クンドゥン」などの映画のヒットによっても明らかである。これを「人道に対する罪」たるホロコーストと言わずして何であろうか。その中国がチベット問題は内政問題であるとして外国からの抗議を撥ねつける一方、その存在すら極めて不確かな六十余年前の〈南京大虐殺〉を声高に避難し続けているのだから、身勝手と言えば身勝手、滑稽と言えばこれほど滑稽な光景はあるまい。
Especially in Tibet, more then 1,200,000 people, corresponding to roughly 20% of the total population, were massacred since being unfairly annexed to Communist China in 1955. And even today, the people there are still abused, and their cultures are being destroyed. The miserable conditions of 'Ethnic Cleansing' in Tibet are known as crueler than ones in Bosnia and Herzegovina or Kosovo. And, it becomes an increasing concern to John Q. Public, because it is introduced to them through hit movies, Seven Years in Tibet (Director: jean-Jaques Annaud, 1997) and Kundun (Director: Martin Scorsese, 1997). If we can not call this crime against humanity as 'holocaust', what else can we call 'holocaust'? The very Communist China declared that the problem of Tibet is a problem relating to domestic affairs and refused the interference of the foreign nations. On the other hand, the CCP is loudly denouncing the 'Nanking Massacre' which had been insisted on its happening more than sixty years ago, but not even clearly defined. It is indeed their ridiculous self-righteous gestures.
その滑稽さの極致と言っていいものが、中国共産党政府の強力な支援の元に、制作中の『ラーベ日記』の映画化である。もちろん、「虐殺三十万」を非難するキャンペーン映画である。『ラーベ日記』については既に詳しく言及したので、これ以上繰り返さないが、少なくともラーベ自身は「虐殺三十万」とは言っていなかったことを想起すれば、この映画が二重の意味で虚構であることは明白であろう。
The extreme example of China's ridiculous gestures in that the CCP is strongly supporting the production of the movie, titled Rabe's Diary.86 Of course, this is a campaign movie for the purpose of denouncing the 'massacre of 300,000'. In other words, this movie is the indeed the false movie with double fabrications.
中国共産党政府がしばしば〈南京大虐殺〉を引き合いにしつつ、日本に対し執拗に過去への「反省と謝罪」を求めるのは、米国議会調査局も分析しているように、「狙いは援助や譲歩を引き出すこと」にあることは間違いないが、もう一方には、冷戦終局後の東アジアに覇権を確保するために、その障害となる日米同盟に楔を打ち込む一つの手段として、旧連合国同士で共感を抱きやすい旧敵国日本の「悪行」の記憶を呼び起こそうとする意図があると見てよい。
The CCP frequently persists in requesting Japan to show an attitude of the 'remorse and apology' for the behaviour that Japan took to China in past, citing the 'Nanking Massacre' as an example. As for its intention, there is no doubt that the CCP aims at withdrawal of the 'compensation and financial assistance' and the 'concession' from Japan as analyzed by the Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service.87 At the same time, in order for the CCP to establish the hegemony in the post Cold War East Asia, the CCP has to drive a wedge into the Japan-U.S. alliance, which is an obstacle on the road to its hegemony. Therefore it may say that as one of measures to accomplish this, the CCP intends to have ex-Allied Nations recall the 'evil act of ex-enemy Japan' stressing old ties of Allies Nations.
『ザ・レイプ・オブ・南京』の拡販活動の背後に中国系米国人や在米華僑団体を通して中国共産党政府の影が垣間見えるのもこのことを端的に物語っている。
It is obviously telling of the China's intention that on the background of the sales campaign of The Rape of Nanking, we can catch a glimpse of the shadow of the CCP through the activities of Chinese-Americans and overseas Chinese merchant organizations in the U.S.
一九三〇年代から四〇年代にかけて日米両国が激しく対立し、遂には不幸にも先端を開くまでに至った背景には、日米の離間に全力を傾注した中国などの巧妙な宣伝工作があったことは紛れもない事実である。我々は二度とこの過ちを繰り返してはならないと考える。
From the years of 1930 through 1940, the national interests of Japan and U.S. became severely opposite, and caused a very unfortunate war. On this background, it is true that China and the Comintern concentrated its effort to carry out the skillful propaganda maneuver, which aimed at splitting Japan and U.S.88 We must not allow this to appear again.
【南京大虐殺】の存否をめぐる我々の主張は、いわれなき「冤罪」によってもたらされた日本の汚名を雪ぐということにとどまらず、二十一世紀に向けて日米の成熟した友好関係の形成と強化を視野に入れたものであることを強調しておきたい。
We would like to emphasize that our assertion that 'Nanking Massacre' was a propaganda by the CCP, isn't only for us to remove the stigma that has been attached to Japan due to the unfounded 'false accusation', but also to take into consideration formation of a mature friendly relationship between Japan and U.S., looking toward the 21st Century, and reinforcement of our relationship.
國學院大学教授
大原 康男
OHARA Yasuo
Professor of Kokugakuin University

(85) Hillel Levine, In search of Sugihara, p.168. as follows:
It is around this time in December 1938 that the most authoritative proclamation regarding Jews was made. Attributed to the Gosho Kaigi, it virtually dictated - though other proclamations would follow-norms of thought and action for the time to come:
No.1 Outline of Responses to Jews: To maintain good will and close relations with both Germany and Italy is central to the diplomacy of the Empire at the present time. So on principle we should certainly avoid tolerating Jews on our Empire whom our allies so vehemently reject. But taking the attitude of shunning them completely, as do the Germans, does not accord with the spirit of racial equality which our Empire has insisted on for many years.
Not only that but we must consider the fact that we need to introduce foreign capital for economic construction to accomplish the war in this state of emergency which the Empire now faces. And also we must avoid making relations with the United States worse. It could cause disadvantageous results. So we should treat [Jews] in accordance with the Guidelines on the left [below]:
Guidelines: 1. We treat the Jews living in Japan, Manchuria, and China at present with fairness, in the same manner as we treat other foreigners and we will not take special measures to reject them. 2. We will treat the newly arrived Jews to Japan, Manchukuo, and China fairly, generally within the regulations of controlling the entry of foreigners. 3. We rill avoid making special efforts to invite Jews to Japan, Manchuria, and China. But this policy does not include people who are worth using such as capitalists and technologies.

(86) The China Daily dated on January 15, 1999, "'Rabe's Diary' hits big screen"

(87) According to the Sankei Shimbun dated on November 27, 1996, the Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service has completed the report, titled Japan-China relation, Present and Future Prospective, and their meanings to the United States. The report points out one of its characteristics, which is the accusation made by the CCP has been using this accusation 'to stir out its internal nationalism and to put Japan in the defensive position, in order to gain economical and trade benefit from Japan.

(88) For the detailed information how the U.S. developed the anti-Japanese, and pro-Chinese activities in the pre-war U.S. are provided in NAGAO ryuichi's book, titled American's intellectuals and Far East (Tokyo University Publication, 1985). America's famous diplomat George F. Kennan wrote his book, titles American diplomacy, 1900-1950 (London: Secker & Warburg, 1952), and he expressed his painful regret that the pre-war American diplomacy had been pro-Chinese and anti-Japanese which allowed the Continental China and North Korea to become inclined to the Communism.
On May 3, 1951, in the hearing before the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate of the United States. General of the Army Douglas MacArthur also said, "It is own personal opinion that the greatest political mistakes we made in a hundred years in the Pacific, was in allowing the Communists to grow in power in China". (the New York Times dated on May 4, 1951)

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南京戦史編集委員会編『南京戦史資料集』偕行社一九八九(平成元)年 Battle of Nanking edition committee (ed.), Source Material Relating to the Battle of Nanking, vol.1, Tokyo : Kaiko-sha, 1989.
南京戦史編集委員会編『南京戦史資料集II』偕行社一九九三(平成五)年 Battle of Nanking edition committee (ed.), Source Material Relating to the Battle of Nanking, vol.2, Tokyo : Kaiko-sha, 1993.
阿羅建一著『聞き書 南京事件』図書出版社一九八七(昭和六十二)年 Ara Ken-ichi, Interviews with Witness of the Nanking Battle, Tokyo : Tosho-Shuppansha, 1987.
南京市文史資料研究会編、加々美光行・姫田光義訳『証言・南京大虐殺』青木書店一九八四(昭和五十九)年 The Testimony of the Survivors of the Nanking Massacre, Tokyo : Aoki-Shoten, 1984.
洞富雄編『日中戦争 南京大残虐事件資料集 第一卷 極東国際軍事裁判関係資料編』青木書店一九八五(昭和六十)年 Hora Tomio (ed.), Source Material Relating to the Nanking Massacre, vol.1, Tokyo : Aoki-Shoten, 1985.
洞富雄編『日中戦争 南京大残虐事件資料集 第二卷 英文資料集』青木書店一九八五(昭和六十)年 Hora Tomio (ed.), Source Material Relating to the Nanking Massacre, vol.2, Tokyo : Aoki-Shoten, 1985.
南京事件調査研究会編訳『南京事件資料集一アメリカ資料編』青木書店一九九二(平成四)年 Nanking Incident Research Group, Nanking Incident Source Material, vol.1 : American Reference, Tokyo : Aoki-Shoten, 1992
南京事件調査研究会編訳『南京事件資料集二中国資料編』青木書店一九九二(平成四)年 Nanking Incident Research Group, Nanking Incident Source Material, vol.2 : Chinese Reference, Tokyo : Aoki-Shoten, 1992
東中野修道著『「南京虐殺」の徹底検証』展転社一九九八(平成十)年 Higashinakano Shudo, The Nanking Massacre : Fact Versus Fiction, Tokyo : Tenden-sha, 1998.
鈴木明著『新「南京大虐殺」のまぼろし』飛鳥新社一九九九(平成十一)年 Suzuki Akira, The illusion of a great Nanking Massacre : New version, Tokyo : Asukashin-sha, 1999.
洞富雄・藤原彰・本多勝一編『南京大虐殺の現場へ』朝日新聞社一九八八(昭和六十三)年
朝日新聞社東京本社調査研究室編『極東国際軍事裁判記録:目録及び索引』朝日新聞社調査研究室一九五三(昭和二十八)年
松村俊夫著『「南京虐殺」への大疑問』展転社一九九八(平成十)年
南京事件資料へ還る back to Nanking Incident Documents