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再審「南京大虐殺」
世界に訴える日本の冤罪

The Alleged 'Nanking Massacre'
Japan's rebuttal to China's forged claims

竹本忠雄 大原康男
Takemoto Tadao & Ohara Yasuo

第一章

Chapter I

〈南京大虐殺〉とは何か

WHAT WAS THE 'NANKING MASSACRE'?

一、南京攻略戦の概要

1. The Road from Shanghai to Nanking

いわゆる〈南京大虐殺〉を論ずる前に、一九三七年十二月、日本軍が南京を攻略した経緯を簡単に述べておこう。
Before discussing the so-called 'Nanking Massacre', we would like to briefly clarify the fact and the reason why the Japanese Army had to capture Nanking (Nanjing) in December 1937.

盧溝橋事件から第二次上海事変へ

From the Marco Polo Bridge Incident to the second Shanghai Incident

一九三一年九月に満州事変が起こり、翌三二年三月に満州国が建国された後も、中国本土との境界である長城線を挟んで日中両軍は何度も交戦した。しかし日本が国際連盟から脱退してから二ヶ月たった一九三三年五月、塘沽で停戦協定が結ばれ、華北に非武装地帯が設けられて両軍が撤退したことで、一年八ヶ月ほど断続的に繰り返された両国間の戦闘もようやく終息した。以後、盧溝橋事件までの四年余の間には日中間に本格的な戦闘はなく、一種の戦間期ともいうべき平和が保たれた時期である。
In September 1931, the Manchurian Incident occurred. Even after the Manchukuo Government was established in March 1932, the Japanese and Chinese Armies engaged in battles repeatedly along the Great Wall that was the boundary between China and Manchuria. Two months after Japan's withdrawal from the League of Nations in May 1933, the cease-fire agreement was concluded at Tanhku (Tanggu) and the demilitarized zone was established in North China, and it resulted in the withdrawal of both troops. Since then, there were no major conflicts recorded. At least for four years, a temporal peace was obtained.
蒋介石が領導する中国の国民政府は塘沽協定前後から準備してきた第五次掃共作戦(一九三〇年頃から敵対関係にあった中国共産党軍を討伐する軍事作戦)を一九三三年十月に発動、三五年には中共軍を辺境の延安に追い込んだ。しかし、翌三六年十二月の西安事件によって国民政府は中国共産党との間に「抗日民族統一戦線」を結成する第二次国共合作(中国国民党と中国共産党の合作)へと方向転換をし始めた。このように、日中間が再び緊迫化してきた中で盧溝橋事件が勃発したのである。
The Kuomintang (KMT, or Nationalist) Party,4 which was led by Generalissimo Ciang Kai-Shek, started the fifth 'Bandit Suppression Campaigns'5 in October 1933, which had been prepared since the time of the Tangku Agreement, and pushed the CCP into the frontier region of Ya'nan by 1935. However, in 1936, due to the out-break of Sian (Xi'an) Incident,6 the KMT chose a different path against Japan. This was what was called 'Anti-Japanese United Front'. The Marco Polo Bridge Incident occurred in such intensified circumstances.
ところで、一八九九年に起こった義和団事件を契機に、英米仏伊日の五ヶ国は一九〇一年、清国政府との間に「北清事変最終議定書[一]」を結んでいた。この議定書に基づき、米国などとともに日本も居留民を保護するために北京近郊に軍隊を駐留させていた。
During that time, due to the occurrence of the Boxer Rebellion, the U.K., the U.S., France, Italy, and Japan had a military agreement (Final Protocol Relating to the North China Incident) with Manchu China (Qing Dynasty) in 1901, and were allowed to station their troops in the suburbs of Peiping (Beijing) for the protection of their residents.7
そして一九三七年七月七日、日本軍の駐屯部隊が北京西郊の盧溝橋付近で夜間演習を行っていたところ、突然、中国軍と見られる方向から数発の銃撃を受けた。これをきっかけに日中両軍が衝突した。これが運命の盧溝橋事件である。
On July 7, 1937 based on the protocol, the Japanese Army was having field practice at night near Marco Polo Bridge. Suddenly, several shots were fired against the Japanese troops from the directions where the Chinese troops were staying. This caused a major conflict between Japan and China. This was the start of the unfortunate incident, called the 'Marco Polo Bridge Incident'.
当時の日本は中国との戦争を望んでいなかった。昭和天皇も事変不拡大を強く希望されていた[二]。そこでただちに現地軍に「不拡大・局地解決」を命じ、四日後には現地で停戦協定が結ばれたが、その停戦協定を中国側は守らなかった。その危険に直面して日本は七月二十七日に内地の三個師団を華北に送ったのである。その二日後の二十九日には中国の保安隊が日本人居留民二百数十名を虐殺する"通州事件"が起こっている。
Japan had no intention of starting the war against China, and immediately ordered the front army not to expand the battle beyond and cease fire swiftly and peacefully, as the Emperor Showa (Hirohito) so strongly wished.8 The cease-fire agreement was reached in four days. However, China broke the agreement. Japan reluctantly dispatched three more divisions on July 27 to North China. On the 29th, in the city of Tungchow (Thongzhou), some 250 Japanese residents were murdered by the Chinese troops, and this incident was being called the 'Tungchow Massacre'.9
それにもかかわらず日本政府はあくまで平和的解決を求め、和平案を策定した。その和平案というのは、満州事変以降の日本の在華権益をすべて白紙に返すというもので、日本側の大幅な譲歩であった。この和平案に基づく最初の日中交渉が八月九日に上海で行われた。
In August 1937, the Japanese government formulated the peace proposal. Both the Japanese Army and Navy agreed to this peace proposal. What this proposal implied was that all the interests Japan had acquired since the Manchurian Incident should become nullified. This was indeed a drastic concession, which Japan had ever conceded.
しかし、その日に上海で、日本の海軍特別陸戦隊の大山勇夫中尉と斉藤嶼蔵一等水兵が中国軍によって惨殺され、この平和交渉はたちまち瓦解したのである。
However, the peace negotiation between Japan and China crumbled immediately due to the incident in which two soldiers were slaughtered in Shanghai on the very day the peace negotiation started in shanghai between Japan and China.
しかも中国国民政府は、日本人居留民が多数いた上海に三十個師団もの軍隊を集中させ、八月十三日、上海の海軍陸戦隊本部を攻撃した(最終的に七十個師団もの兵力を上海に集中させた)。かくして戦火は華北から上海へと飛び火したのである。当時、上海の居留民を守る日本の兵力は、わずか四千人の海軍陸戦隊だけだった。陸軍は一兵も存在しなかった。
The KMT was building up their troops in great number in Shanghai. During that time, there were a large number of Japanese residents. To defend them, there was only one defending unit consisting of 4,000 combatants. To the Japanese unit, the KMT sent a numerically far superior number of troops consisting of thirty divisions on August 13. Thus, the war expanded to Shanghai.
そこで、日本は上海派遣軍の編成を下令、これを上海に派遣し、従来からの不拡大方針を放棄したのである。
Japan organized the Shanghai Expeditionary Forces, and deployed them to Shanghai. By that time, Japan had abandoned the existing non-expansion policy.
蒋介石はドイツ軍事顧問団の協力によって訓練された最精鋭の部隊が集中している上海に日本軍を引き込む作戦を採り、そして成功したのである(第二次上海事変)。
Chiang Kai-shek was successful in luring the Japanese Army into Shanghai, where the Chinese units, well trained by the cooperation of German military advisors,10 were stationed. (The second Shanghai Incident).

上海から南京へ

From Shanghai to Nanking

上海では日本軍の苦戦が続いたため、十一月五日、日本は新たに第十軍を杭州湾北岸に上陸させ、上海の中国軍を包囲する作戦に出た。この作戦が功を奏して中国軍は敗退し、九日、その一部は首都南京に向けて退却を始めた。その二日前の七日には上海派遣軍と第十軍を統一指揮するために、松井石根大将を軍司令官とする中支那方面軍が編成されていたが、この部隊が南京攻略を担当することになる。
In Shanghai, the Japanese Army continued to suffer from the enemy suppression. On November 5, Japan had to deploy the 10th Army at the northern bank of the Hangchou (Hangzhou) Bay, and encircled the Chinese Army. As this operation was successful, most of the Chinese Army had to withdraw from Shanghai and a part of the army moved to Nanking on the 9th. On the 7th, two days prior to this event, the Central China Area Army was organized under the direction of MATSUI Iwane, combining the Shanghai Expeditionary Force and the 10th Army. This army was ordered to capture the city of Nanking.
この間、日本政府は早期停戦を望み、ドイツに和平仲介を依頼した。トラウトマン駐華大使が本国政府の指示を受けて交渉を行ったが、結果的にはこの斡旋の努力は実らなかった。
During this period, the Japanese government had desired to cease fire, and asked the German government to intervene in a peace settlement. Under the advice of the German government, Oskar Trautman, the German ambassador to China, tried to negotiate with the KMT, but this peace negotiation could not be settled.
当時の南京は、周囲を高さ十二メートル、厚さ六〜十二メートルの城壁に囲まれた総面積約三十五平方キロの城塞都市であったが、十一月十四・十五日、国民政府は作戦会議を開き、この南京で日本軍と戦うか、それとも南京を放棄して他の場所で戦うかを論議した。席上"南京放棄論"が多数を占めた。
The city of Nanking then was a castle city, surrounded by the rampart of 12 meters high, and of 6 to 12 meters thick, and occupied the total area of about 35 square kilometers. On November 14 and 15, the KMT held an opinion conference and discussed whether they should defend the city, or abandon the city and fight in another place. At the conference, the majority expressed their opinions to abandon the city.
同席したドイツ軍事顧問団団長のファルケンハウゼン将軍もこれに賛成したが、蒋介石はあくまでも南京を固守するという防衛方針を決定した。蒋介石は唐生智を南京衞戍司令長官(軟禁防衞軍司令官)に任命し、さらに、城壁を堅固にし、城外の同国人の財産・家屋を焼き尽くして敵に一物も与えないという中国伝統の「堅壁清野作戦」を命令、中国軍は南京城近郊の建物や民家が日本軍に利用されないように、これを徹底的に破壞・焼却した。
Von Falkenhausen, the chief of the Military Advising Group of Germany, agreed to their opinions. But, Chiang Kai-Shek insisted on defending the city. Chiang Kai-Shek appointed Tang Sheng-zhi as the commander-in-chief of the Nanking Garrison (Nanking Defense Force), and ordered him to reinforce the wall and destroy citizen's properties outside the wall as the Chinese traditional tactics of the 'Scorched-earth policy'11, not letting the Japanese Army take advantage of them.
American correspondent F. Tillman Durdin, described this scene from Nanking on December 8, in the December 12 edition of the New York Times :
The burning of obstructions within the defense zone by the Chinese continued. Palatial homes of Chinese officials in Mausoleum Park district were among the places burned late yesterday.
The city was ringed by a dense pall of smoke, for the Chinese also continued to burn buildings and obstructions yesterday in towns in a ten-mile radius.
This correspondent, motoring to the front, found the entire valley outside Chungshan Gate, southeast of Mausoleum Park, ablaze. The village of Hsiaolingwei, along the main highway bordering the park, was a mass of smoking ruins, and inhabitants who had not evacuated days before were streaming toward Nanking carrying their few miserable belongings and occasionally pausing to take sorrowing looks at their former homes.
そして十一月十五日、蒋介石は首都を南京から重慶に移すことを決定、十六日にこれを宣言するとともに、一切の政府機関は南京から撤退するよう命じた。国民政府の要人たちは二十一日までに南京を出発、次いで二十七日には南京在留外国人に対して避難勧告を発した。政府高官は車に満載した家財道具とともに先を争って南京から脱出し始めた。
On 16th, Chiang Kai-Shek declared his intension to move the capital from Nanking to Chungking (Chongqing) so that all of the government offices would be withdrawn by the 21st. Also, on November 27, all the foregn residents were asked to evacuate from the city. Then, the government high officials and the wealthy started getting away from the city, carrying their valuables and furniture.12

《七日戦争》であった南京攻略戦

Seven-days Nanking Battle

城内には南京防衛の中国軍将兵と脱出する術のない難民が残された。
この難民を保護するために、南京に残留する十六人の民間の欧米人たちは十一月二十二日に「南京安全区国際委員会」(以下「安全区委員会」と称する)を結成、南京城のほぼ中央部の縦二マイル、一マイルのやや菱形に似た一角を「中立区」(後に「安全区」と呼ぶ)に準備した[三]。その面積は約三・八平方キロ、南京市の十一%を占め、ニューヨークのセントラル・パーク(三・四平方キロ)とほぼ同じ面積である。
Within the city wall was the Nanking Garrison, together with the remaining citizens. In order to pretect them, the 'International Committee of the Naking Safety Zone' (Non-government organization. Here after 'the Safety Zone Committee') was organized by the remaining sixteen westerners on November 22. This Safety contained eighteen refugee camps, and was located in rhombic shape area of 2 miles in length and I mile in width in the central Nanking. This area of 3.8 square kilometers, which was corresponded to 11% of the whole Nanking city, was comparable in size to New York's Central Park.
十二月一日、安全区委員会(ジョン・ラーベ委員長)は、中国軍当局及び日本当局に対して「安全区」を尊重し、そこを攻撃しないよう申し入れた。上海でフランス人神父が設定した「安全区」についてはフランス軍の協力もあったため日本軍も承認し、攻撃を控えたからである[四]
On December 1, the Safety Zone Committee (John Rabe was the chairman) requested both Japanese and Chinese authorities not to attack the Safety Zone. Previously, in Shanghai, there was a case if which the Japanese Army avoided the attack of the Safety Zone set by a French Catholic priest, since the cooperation was offered by the French troops stationed there.13
しかし、中国軍の唐生智司令官は、アメリカ政府やドイツ政府の公認組織でもない一民間の安全区委員会の要望を無視し、別途「難民区」を設定し、高級住宅街である「新住宅区」に難民をすべて収容する方針を決定、防衛軍の一部を派遣し、収容組織を決定した[五]
However, Tang Sheng-zhi ignored the request, and decided to establish the 'Refugee Zone' in order to receive all of the refugees.
また、日本当局も次のような理由から申し入れを承認しなかった[六]
The Japanese Army also refused the Safety Zone Committee's request for the following reasons:14
一、安全区の境界には要所に目印が立てられただけで、鉄条網などで仕切られているわけではないから、中国軍将兵が簡単に侵入できる。
二、安全区には中国軍将校の住宅が多く、そこに多くの将校が潜伏している恐れがある。
三、上海では、フランス軍の駐屯部隊が敗残兵などの立ち入り防止・武装解除といった"好意的協力"を惜しまず、中立性が維持されたが、武力をまったく有しない南京安全区委員会には敗残兵の立ち入りを防止できるはずがなく、中立性を保つ保証がない。
  1. The Safety Zone was separated only by the landmarks. Therefore, the Chinese soldiers could easily penetrate the Safety Zone.
  2. Within the Safety Zone, there were many residences of Chinese officers.
  3. The neutrality of the Safety Zone of Shanghai was kept, owing to the voluntary cooperation offered by the French troops. However, in the case of Nanking, the Safety Zone Committee was not vested by military power, and there was no guarantee to keep the neutrality by pretecting from stranglers' coming in.
先述したトラウトマンによる和平交渉が実らず、停戦合意が成らなかったため、奇しくも安全区委員会が申し入れを行った同じ日である十二月一日、日本軍は南京を攻略することに決定、九日には国際法学者とも協議して作成した「攻略要領」に基づき、「和平開城の勧告文[七]」を飛行機で城内に散布した。国際法に則って“無防備都市”つまり「防守都市に非ず」と宣言して開城すれば攻撃しないと中国側に通告したのである(第二次大戦におけるパリがその例で、これによってパリは破壊を免れた)。
As previously stated, Trautmann's peace negotiation did not produce the favorable result, so the Japanese Army decided to attack the city of Nanking on December 1, on the same day when the Safety Zone Committee made the request. On December 9, the Japanese Army scattered 'Bills advising surrender of the Chinese Army' into the city by the aircraft. The bills were made in cooperation with a scholar of international humanitarian law as to a undefended or open city. The attack could have been avoided if the KMT had proclaimed Nanking a 'Defensive City' according to the international humanitarian law.15 (Paris remained indestructible in this way during World War II.)
しかし、翌十日午後一時の回答期限に至っても何の回答もなかったので、日本軍は総攻撃に踏み切った。南京城外に中国軍が設けた主要な抵抗陣地で激戦が展開され、日本軍は十二日までに郊外の要衝(紫金山・雨花台・工兵学校など)を占領、その日の午後八時には唐司令官は麾下の軍に退却命令を出すとともに、自らも幕僚とともに脱出した(蒋介石は十二月七日早朝、南京を脱出している)。このため、中国軍は総崩れとなり、十三日未明、日本軍の一部は城内突入に成功した(日本軍は形式的には安全区に関する安全区委員会の申し入れを拒否したが、激戦が予想されたにもかかわらず、中山陵などの史跡とともに安全区にも出来るだけ被害が及ばないよう配慮した)。
The KMT did not reply for this offer until 1:00 p.m. on the 10th. Then, the troops opened fire. The Nanking Garrison fiercely resisted the attacks at the Chinese defense forts outside the wall of Nanking. However, the Japanese Army occupied the main areas (such as Purple Mountain, Rain Flower Terrace, Military Academy, etc.) by December 12. By 8:00 p.m., Tang Sheng-zhi, ordering the Nanking Garrison to withdraw from the area quickly, left with his staff's officers. On December 7, Chiang Kai-Shek left Nanking in the early morning. As a result, the Nanking Garrison became disordered. At dawn on the 13th, a part of Japanese Army successfully entered the city. During the process of the entry, the Japanese troops were ordered not to damage the historical sites, such as Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum as well as the Safety Zone, in spite of the formal refusal against the request of the Safety Zone Committee.
中国軍は城内各所に鉄条網を張り、地雷を埋め、機関銃を据えて徹底抗戦の構えを見せたため、日本軍は激しい市街戦は避けられないと予測していたが、中国軍の抵抗は弱く、城内では市街戦はなかった。このため、十三日午後十時、上海派遣軍司令部は「南京完全占領」を声明した(城外では十四日午後まで敗走する中国軍との間に戦闘が続けられていた)。
The Nanking Garrison had been preparing the deliberate defense by setting barbed wires, laying mines and positioning machine-guns at many places around the city. Contrary to the Japanese Army's estimate, the resistance of the Nanking Garrison was relatively weak, and no street fights occurred within the city wall. By 10:00 p.m. of the 13th, the Japanese Army announced the 'Complete Occupation of the city of Nanking'. However, in the suburbs of the city, there were continuous battles fought between the Nanking Garrisons and the Central China Area Army until the afternoon of the 14th.
日本軍が危惧したように、安全区委員会が安全区の中立性を守るためにそこからの中国軍の撤退を繰り返し要求したにもかかわらず、撤退しなかったばかりか、中国軍将兵の多くは市民に偽装し、武器を携行して安全区に逃げ込んだ。いわゆる「便衣兵」(便衣とは戎衣=軍服に対して平服を意味し、便衣兵とは国際法上、戦闘資格を有しない「私的狙撃兵」のことを指す)となったのであるが、依然として正規兵であることには変わりがない[八]
As feared by Japanese authorities, many Chinese troops took refuge in the Safety Zone against the repeated requested to stop doing so made by the Safety Zone Committee. Many of them wore civilian clothes, yet they were still armed. They were called 'Plain-clothes soldiers.' According to the international humanitarian law, they could not be regarded as soldiers, but they were regarded as 'privately armed bandits', hiding their status of being regular soldiers.
このため、日本軍は「中国軍はゲリラ戦を準備中」と判断し、敗残兵摘発を目的とする掃蕩作戦(占領地の治安を確保するため降伏しない敵兵を発見し逮捕・拘束すること)を十三日早朝から十六日まで四日間にわたって南京城の内外で実施することになった。掃蕩に際しては担当する部隊に対し「外国権益保護」「略奪・放火の厳罰」を命じたほか、「青壮年の男子は敗残兵の恐れがあるので、逮捕・監禁する」とともに、「それ以外の戦意のない市民は寛容の心を持って接する」よう命じている。日本軍は十六日夜までには敗残兵を一通り逮捕するとともに、本来非武裝であるべき安全区において大量の武器・弾薬を鹵獲し、翌十七日に入城式を行った。十二月十日の総攻撃開始以来、掃蕩作戦を含めて僅か七日間で南京は日本軍に制圧されたのである。
The Japanese Army, after judging that the Nanking Garrison was preparing for guerrilla warfare, had to conduct the mopping-up operaion for four days in order to capture the resisting soldiers, starting at dawn of the 13th and continuing through the 16th. The Japanese Army ordered all the operation troops to protect the 'rights and interests of foreign residents,' and to strictly prohibit 'looting and arson,' and to capture the 'male and youth' suspected of being soldiers, and to treat 'all the citizens' with courtesy. The Japanese Army completed all the tasks prior to the night of the 16th, by capturing the stragglers and a large amount of arms and ammunitions in the Safety Zone. Then, the entry ceremony into Nanking was held on the 17th. Nanking fell within seven days since the start of the operation in December 10.
しかし、安全区にはまだ中国人将兵が多数潜伏していることが予想されたので、十二月二十四日から翌年一月五日まで日中合同の委員会によって「兵民分離工作」を実施した。これは安全区に居住する青壮年の男子を対象として、体格・服装・言語の違い(中国では地方ごとに言語が大きく異なり、出身地の違う者同士では言葉が全く通じなかった)などを目安にして兵士と市民を分離するもの。その結果、同査問委員会は、婦女子や老人・子供を除く成年男子十六万人に「居住証明書」を交付するとともに、中国軍将兵約二千人を逮捕して日本軍に引き渡した。
However, since a large number of Chinese soldiers were still suspected of being hidden in the Safety Zone, the 'Sino-Japanese Joint Commission' was established on December 24, in order to separate the citizens from the hiding soldiers by checking physique, outfit and language.16 This investigation was done until January 5, 1938 for all the Nanking citizens, not including the elderly and women and children. As a result, approximately 2,000 soldiers were captured, while 160,000 male adults acquired ID cards.
一九三八年一月一日、九人の中国人委員によって構成される「南京自治委員会」が発足し、治安の回復とともに行政の実務は同自治委員会の手に移された。その後、自治委員会は発展解消し、三月二十八日、「南京維新政府」が成立した。
On January 1, 1938, nine Chinese committee members established the 'Nanking Self-government Committee,' and the administration of the city came under this committee upon recovery of public order. And, further, on March 28, the committee dissolved and the 'Nanking Restoration Government' was newly established by the anti-Chiang Kai-Shek Chinese group.

二、犠牲者数がまちまちな〈大虐殺〉の告発

2. Prosecution of the 'nanking massacre' - Why Differs Widely in Casualties Count

以上、略述した南京攻略戦が終わった直後の十二月十三日から翌年二月初旬までの約六週間の間に、日本軍占領下の南京での中国の一般市民や捕虜が多数殺害されたと非難されているのが〈南京大虐殺〉である。戦後まもなく開廷された中国国民政府による南京軍事裁判において、南京攻略軍の師団長一人と三人の陸軍将校が、連合国による極東国際軍事裁判(「東京裁判」と略称される)では攻略軍の司令官がそれぞれ起訴され、その責任を問われて極刑に処せられたことはよく知られている。
The so-called 'Nanking Massacre' is the case wherein a large number of the citizens of Nanking and the captives have been alleged to have been murdered during the six weeks' occupation period under the Japanese Army, from December 13 immediately after the fall of Nanking through the beginning of February of 1938. After World War II, the Nanking District Court was held by the KMT, and a chief of division and three officers, who belonged to the Central China Area Army, were charged and put to a death penalty for their responsibility, so was a commander-in-chief of the Army at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE). And, the results are well known.
しかし、これほど有名になった〈南京大虐殺〉であるけれども、それを告発する見解も多岐にわたっており、とりわけ、最大の争点である犠牲者数は全くばらばらである。
However, the prosecutions presented for this 'Nanking Massacre' have been various, and especially, the number of victims are controversial.

年代 主張者 犠牲者数 出典
1938 安全区委員会     49 徐淑希編『南京安全区の記録』
1938 L.C.スマイス  15760 『南京安全区における戦争被害』
1938 M.S.ベイツ  42000 ティンパーリー編『戦争とは何か』
1941 E・スノー  42000 『アジアの戦争』
1943 A・スメドレー 200000 『支那の歌声』
1946 南京検察処 340000 『敵罪行調査報告』
1948 東京裁判 200000 『極東国際軍事裁判速記録』
1971 台湾国防部史政局 100000 『抗日戦史』
1993 ブリタニカ大辞典  42000 The New Encyclopadia Britannica
1995 中国共産党 300000 『対日戰爭史録』
1997 アイリス・チャン 300000 『ザ・レイプ・オブ・南京』

Date claims Number of
casualties
Sources
1938 The Safety Zone Committee     49 Documents of the Nankgin Safety Zone
1938 L.C. Smythe  15760 War Damage in the Nanking Area
1938 M.S. Bates  42000 What War Means
1941 E. Snow  42000 The Battle for Asia
1943 A. Smedley 200000 Battle Hymn of China
1946 Nanking district Court 340000 Summary report on the Investigations of Japanese war crimes committed in Nanking
1948 The IMTFE 200000 The Tokyo War Crimes Trial (stenographic records)
1971 Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai 100000 History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945)
1993 The New Encyclopedia Britannica  42000 The New Encyclopadia Britannica
1995 Communist China 300000 History of the War against Japan
1997 Iris Chang 300000 The Rape of Nanking

〈南京大虐殺〉に関する歴代中国政府の代表的見解と言えば、中国国民党南京検察処の「報告書」(一九四六年)や興祖著『日軍侵華暴行─南京大屠殺』(上海人民出版、一九八五年)などがあるが、本書では敢えて『中国版 対日戦争史録』(中国国際戦略研究基金編纂、一九九五年)所收の「日本軍の南京攻略・占領と大虐殺」を中華人民共和国政府の代表的な〈南京大虐殺〉論として取り上げた。
The following is a list of the variety of views on the 'Nanking Massacre', expressed by the CCP.
Summary report on the Investigations of Japanese war crimes committed in Nanking, prepared by the Procurator of the District Court, Nanking (Nanking District Court, 1946)
Atrocities of the Japanese Invasion Army - the Nanking Massacre (Shanghai People's Publishing, 1985)
History of the War against Japan (Committee of China International Strategic Studies, 1995)
We especially focus on a portion titled "The Nanking Capture by Japanese Army-Occupation and Massacre", presented in History of the War against Japan.
その理由は、同論文が『ザ・レイプ・オブ・南京』の論拠とする文献・見解をほとんど網羅している上、中華人民共和国元副首相兼外交部長(外相)の姫鵬飛(一九七四年の日中共同声明時の外交部長)が総監修に当たっていることから、中国政府の〈南京大虐殺〉に対する最新の代表的見解と見做しても支障ないと考えられるからである。
The reason is because The Rape of Nanking written by Iris Chang, a Chinese-American, mainly has quoted from it. In addition, it has been published under the supervision of Chi Peng-fei, former deputy premier and foreign minister of the People's Republic of China. Therefore, the view shown in it can be regarded as the latest official view of the CCP on the 'Nanking Massacre'.
なお同書は、第二次大戦終結五十周年を記念して一九九五年に編纂された七五一頁の文献写真集で、編纂主幹・執筆は中国国防大学教授の徐焔である。徐焔は、そのほかにも『一九四五年 満洲進軍』(朱建栄訳、三五、一九九三年)などの著作がある、日本でも比較的知られている戦後生まれの歴史学者である。
For further details, the photographs presented in the book are quoted from the 751 pages of photo-collection, compiled by Fund Xu'yan, professor of Chinese Defense University, published in 1995 for the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II. Fund Xu'yan is the author of the book, called 1945 March to Manchuria, and he is a postwar historian relatively well known in Japan.
南京事件資料へ還る back to Nanking Incident Documents